Hoof-and-mouth disease (also known as foot-and-mouth disease) is a communicable virus affecting cattle, pigs and other cloven-hoofed animals. Hoof-and-mouth disease is not related to hand, foot, and mouth disease, a virus that infects humans.
It is a member of the genus Aphthovirus in the family Picornaviridae. There are seven types of hoof-and-mouth disease and more than 60 subtypes or strains.
The disease can lead to severe losses in milk and meat production. The death rate is usually less than 1% in adult livestock but the rate may be higher in calves and piglets, according to the Center for Food Security & Public Health at Iowa State University.
Symptoms include fever, along with lesions in the mouth and around the hooves.
Hoof-and-mouth disease is transmitted from animal to animal directly and indirectly. The virus can also be passed from human to animal.
Terror Threat of Hoof-and-Mouth Disease
2001 – The United Kingdom has an outbreak. Thousands of animals are culled during the crisis and the UK loses billions.
2010-2011 – An outbreak occurs in South Korea. More than 1 million animals are culled.